1. LEARN THE ABREVIATIONS - Учебное пособие состоит из 12 уроков и раздела обоб­щающих упражнений. Вприложении приводятся...


1. BHA - bottom hole assembly

2. ВОР - blowout preventer

3. CBL - cement bond logging

4. csg.- casing

5. С V - circulating valve

6. ESP - electrical submersible pump

7. ND - nipple down

8. NU - nipple up

9. PLT - production logging tool

10. POOH - pull out of hole

11.PT-pressure test

12. RIH - run in hole

13. RO-rig out

14. RU - rig up

15. SAP tool - selective acidizing packer

16. SICP - shut in casing pressure

17. SITP - shut in tubing pressure

18. SIW-shut in well

19. tbg.-tubing

20. TOF-top of fish 2 l.w/h- wellhead

22. WO - wait on




1. Band-крепить

2. Check valve - обратный клапан

3. Combination valve - комбинированный клапан

4. Head module - головка ЭЦН

5. Junction box - соединительная коробка

6. Knock out valve - сбивной клапан


While running ESP, drift and tally the tubing.

1. Check the compatibility of the surface electrical equipment with the parameters of the ESP.

См. пункт 2.

2. Install the check valve into the head module of the pump and then install the knock out valve onto the check valve or install a combination valve. The knock out valve may be installed one joint higher than the check valve.

3. Band ESP cable to tubing joints (above and below each tubing collar) so that there is a distance of 250 mm from the collars.

4. Pressure test the tubing to 7000 Kpa while running in the hole.

5. The pump should be run in at the speed not higher than 0.25 m/s.

6. Cable insulation resistance should be measured every 300 m.

7. Set the pump at the depth which is in accordance with the well plan and ensure that there is enough cable left on surface to hook up to the junction box.

8. Make all the necessary connections at the surface. Check for proper rotation of the pump and make sure that the pump is producing with the proper pumping rate.

9. Adjust underload/overload protection. Turn the well over to the production operator for start up and placement into production. Start up operations should be carried out in accordance with the manual.

10. The actual depth at which the pump is installed, the time of installation, the static fluid level in the well and the readings of the gauges should all be indicated in the daily report.




1. Depending upon operations in drilling, they use core bits, roller-cutters or rotary bits.

2. Tool-pusher told the floor hand to put a snipe into the tool room

and bring a crescent wrench. 3. When RIH they use singles from pipe racks or stands from the


4. There are different types of threads: regular and IF, 8-round and 10-round.

5. Before spudding a well you should ensure all safety precautions were taken.

6. Sumpless drilling is a type of drilling when used drilling mud can be applied again.

7. When circulating a well a junk basket is used to collect cuttings after work with a mill.

8. When tripping pipe joints must be tallied and drifted to avoid wax build up.

9. Acid blend is always tested for compatibility with oil before use.

10. You can determine depth of fluid level when swabbing if you count

drawworks drum wraps.

11. There were some tubing collar marks on the impression block.

12. After the BOP drill the driller went to the BOP stand to open the BOP again.

13. Scraper is used to clean casing of wax and wax-knife is used to clean tubing of wax.

14. In case of emergency a derrickman can use escape buggy line to escape.

15. Drawworks transmission malfunction caused emergency shut off.

16. When tripping pipe power tongs is one of the main pieces of equipment to look after.

17. Surge tank pressure gauge reading was a little higher than normal so they had to choke down.

18. Washover mill is usually installed on the end of a washover pipe and is used to cut off metal around pipe.

19. During workover they take Christmas tree off and install BOP to prevent a blowout.

20. Catwalk is usually spotted in front of a well and is used when picking up or laying down joints.


1. В результате выброса манометр разбился.

2. При спуско-подъемных операциях необходимо замерять и шаблонировать трубы.

3. Пробойник - это электрический перфоратор, спускаемый в скважину на металлическом тросе.

4. Бурильщик определяет глубину спуска капсы по виткам на барабане лебедки.

5. Чтобы вызвать приток после кислотной обработки, иногда приходится долго свабировать, раскручивая нефть и проверяя обводненность.

6. Воронку накручивают на НКТ для предотвращения повреждения резьбы последней трубы, в качестве указателя последней трубы и для обеспечения нормального захода геофизических приборов в НКТ.

7. Когда ломик сбросили в скважину, детонатор не сработал и перфорация не удалась.

8. Для определения обводненности, нефть раскручивают в


9. Тартальный канат используется для свабирования, а талевый

- дляСПО.

10. Пакер посадить не удалось, он сползает по колонне.

11. Селективная кислотная обработка - это способ последова­тельного воздействия на нефтеносный пласт кислотой.

12. Перед ремонтом скважины елку фонтанной арматуры демонтируют.

13. При ловильных работах используют разнообразный ловильный инструмент для ловли кабеля, НКТ или других упавших в скважину предметов.

14. Блок-крестовина на фонтанной арматуре дает возможность установить несколько резьбовых или глухих фланцев.

15. НКТ держатся на муфтовой подвеске, а муфтовая подвеска фиксируется в арматуре при помощи специальных болтов.

16. Мастер сказал верховому замерить количество жидкости в емкости и определить количество воды.

17. Манометр устанавливают для определения давления в НКТ и затрубном пространстве.

18. При помощи прихватоопределителя можно найти место, где трубы застряли в скважине.

19. Для защиты НКТ от кислоты в нее добавляют антикорро­зийный ингибитор.

20. Посадить или сорвать пакер возможно проворотом колонны НКТ влево или вправо.

21. Давление на сепараторе возросло и бурильщик уменьшил размер штуцера.


1. What main departments in a standard oil company do you know?

2. How do a supervisor and a tool-pusher share their responsibilities at a drilling rig?

3. What two types of sedimentary rocks do you know?

4. What is porosity and what is permeability?

5. What drilling equipment used at a drilling rig do you know?

6. What are the methods to release pipe string when stuck in the hole?

7. What are the main parts of a Christmas tree?

8. What are the main external components of a wellhead?

9. What are the main internal components of a wellhead?

10. What are the main purposes of using valves?

11. What is a service rig used for?

12. What cables or lines used on a service rig do you know?

13. What are the main purposes of a mud pump at a service rig?

14. What are the main differences between selective an bullhead acid jobs?

15. Why bullet perforation is considered to be more dangerous than cummulative perforation?

16. What is swabbing?

17. What swabbing equipment do you know?

18. Which factors are essential for the process of oil and gas separation?

19. What is the difference between a stand and a joint?

20. What types of pipe do you know?

21. What fishing tools do you know?

22. How can pipelines be classified?

23. What types of dewaxing do you know?

24. How can pipelines be protected from corrosion?

25. What is the difference between wax-knives and scrapers?


1. They usually do a pickle prior to an acid job.

2. If during pressure test a line does not hold pressure, it is entirely reassembled.

3. Hot oiling is a method to dewax a well.

4. If we wide open a choke on a well it will be producing more oil for many years ahead.

5. To determine watercut one should spin oil out.

6. Swabbing cup is made of heavy-duty metal and never wears out.

7. Junk basket is used to collect hand tools in the end of a working day.

8. When drilling they first run surface casing, then intermediate casing and then production casing with liner.

9. Drill pipe is not so heavy as tubing so it can be used only for routine operations.

10. When squeezing acid into formation the pump used should be powerful enough.

11. Bottom hole assembly is a combination of different tools run into the hole.

12. A stuck point is located by the tool called acidizing packer.

13. When flowing a well you should monitor wind's direction to prevent gas poisoning.

14. Surge tank is used to separate gas and oil.

15. H2S is dangerous only in high concentrations.


1. Supervisor is a:

- manager's assistant;

- foreman in Production Department;

- engineer on site.

2. Completions Department is in charge of:

- maintaining pipelines;

- drilling;

-perforating jobs;

- roads construction.

3. Hydrocarbons origin is:

- remains of ancient plants and animals;

- ancient underground waters;

- result of chemical reaction of H2S and air.

4. Drilling mud is used for:

- cleaning equipment after use;

- cooling down the bit;

- washing out cuttings;

- mixing acid blend.

5. Wellhead provides for:

- access to casing and tubing;

- increase of formation pressure;

- launching a pipeline pig.

6. Valves are used to:

• - control hydrostatic pressure;

- control and stop fluid flow;

- control H2S concentration.

7. Service rig is:

- bigger than a drilling rig;

- smaller than a drilling rig;

- not different from a drilling rig.

8. ВОР is used for:

- shutting in a well in case of a kick;

- oil and gas separation;

- installation of tubing and casing valves.

9. The purpose of acid job is:

- to retrieve tools stuck in the hole;

- to stimulate formation;

- to prepare the well for perforating job.

10. The purpose of swabbing is to:

- increase oil production;

- inject water in the well;

- recover water and initiate flow.

11. Separator is a device:

- installed on the well bottom;

- used for oil and gas separation;

- separating two wells.

12. The purpose of fishing job is to:

- get rid of wax in the well;

- catch some fish in underground waters

- retrieve pipe and tools fallen to the well bottom.

13. Pigs in pipelines are launched to:

- clean the pipeline of wax;

- check the pipeline integrity;

- push H2S out of the pipeline;

- have fun.

14. H2S can be found:

- everywhere;

- in oil wells natural gas;

- only in specially designed tanks.

15. When you see a man down in H2S area you must:

- run to help him;

- put on an air pack and then rescue him;

- run out of the area and quit working for the company.



1. Oil Company structure and personnel.

2. Hydrocarbons origin.

3. Well drilling.

4. Wellhead equipment.

5. Valves.

6. Service rig equipment.

7. Well completion.

8. Well swabbing and testing.

9. Tripping pipe. Fishing job.

10. Pipelines.

11. Safety.




1. Logistics, Drilling, Completions, Production, Materials, Safety. Invironment, Security, Construction.

2. Maintenance, Welders, Mechanics, Catering, Drivers.

3. Perforating jobs, acid stimulation, fishing jobs, well testing, swabbing, workover.

4. Production, Well testing, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Electricians.

5. Purchasing of materials and equipment,warehouses and pipeyards, materials storage and distribution.

6. Capital Projects - long terms construction of buildings, plants and facilities. General Construction - short terms construction of roads, pipelines and small projects.

7. Invironment protection from pollution, oil spills clean up.

8. Driller, assistant driller, derrickman, roughneck.

9. Keep operative communication with the superintendent and site supervisors, help solving arising problems at sites.

10. Equal. Different departments.

11. Supervisor is responsible for technological operations, tool-pusher is responsible for equipment and personnel.


1. Welders and a safety man.

2. Accident with a pipe-bender, unauthorized personnel at the shop, usage of equipment, shop clean up, safety clothes, first aid kits.

3. The pipe-bender broke loose and hit one welder causing injury.

4. People who do not know how to use equipment can injure themselves and others.

5. Clean up all metal scrap and garbage.

6. Coveralls, steel toed boots, safety glasses, gloves, hard hats.



1. Останки древнейших животных и растений.

2. Продолжительность периодов непрерывных условий.

3. Нефть и газ легче воды.

4. Карбонатные и обломочные.

5. Наличие пространства между частицами породы.

6. С какой легкостью жидкость может перемещаться через пористую породу.

7. Пласт, содержащий только свободную воду.

8. Песчаники, известняки, доломиты.

9. Сырая нефть и попутный газ.

10. Твердое, жидкое и газообразное.

11. Высокое пластовое давление.


1. Oil and gas exist underground in microscopic pores.

2. Much of the oil began as the remains of ancient plants and animals.

3. Accumulation of organic matter depended upon durability of geological periods.

4. As oil was lighter than water it tended to rise.

5. Not all rocks are capable of being a reservoir rock.

6. Permeability refers to how easy oil can travel through pores.

7. Limestones and dolomites contain oil, they are sedimentary rocks.

8. As a rule crude oil contains gas.


1. Fluids move from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.

2. Pressure at the well bottom.

3. Pressure at surface.

4. Pressure at surface when the well is shut-in.

5. Bottom.

6. Pressure within fluid column.

7. Reservoir pressure should be greater than fluid column hydrostatic


8. Permeability of the reservoir rock, area of flow into the wellbore,

fluid viscosity.



1. Reciprocating is a method to break the tool stuck in the hole free.

2. Cuttings in a well mean pieces of the rock being drilled out.

3. Drilling mud is specially prepared fluid which is pumped into the hole when drilling, to cool down the bit, wash out cuttings and create extra pressure on the bit.

4. The tool used to determine stuck point is called free point tool.

5. Elevator is a device to pull pipe out of the hole.

6. First part of casing is called conductor and second - surface casing.

7. Cement job is conducted every time they run casing into the hole.

8. Sumpless drilling means that drilling mud recovered from a well is not drained into a sump, but is cleaned up and used again.


1. Exploration, Development, Completion.

2. To drill a few wells at the same time and not to have long distance

rig moves.

3. Foundation or platform with drawworks, rig floor with rotary table, derrick with monkey boards, crownblock,travelling block, elevator.

4. Shale-shakers, mud pump, generator, boiler, BOP, etc.

5. To cool down a bit, wash out cuttings, increase drilling progress and create hydrostatic pressure thus preventing a blowout.

6. A method to check direction of drilling during well deviation.

7. Conductor, surface casing, production casing.

8. To cut core.

9. Reciprocating, fluid (oil, water, acid) bath.

10. At a certain moment they start to drill with inclination to reach the planned target (formation).

11. Free point tool.


1. Add stabilizers.

2. First bend in the drill string above the bit, formation characteristics.

3. Put more weight on the bit, prevent wall sticking and other hole conditions problems.

4. They wear out and sometimes malfunction, fail.

5. Reduce the weight on the bit and speed up the rotary table.

6. Very gradually reduce the bit weight.



1. Удерживать обсадную колонну и колонну НКТ, изолировать затрубное пространство, обеспечивать доступ во все колонны, контролировать процессы закачки и добычи жидкости и газа.

2. Колонная головка, промежуточная колонная головка, трубная головка, елка фонтанной арматуры.

3. Установка клиновой подвески, обеспечение выходов для установки затрубных задвижек.

4. При применении дополнительной обсадной колонны используется для установки клиновой подвески, обеспечения выходов для установки затрубных задвижек дополнительной (технической) колонны.

5. Катушка с двумя фланцами для крепления муфтовой подвески и обеспечения выходов для установки задвижек НКТ.

6. Переводный фланец, главная ствольная задвижка, блок-крестовина, оголовок елки, боковая задвижка, штуцер.

7. Открытие: ствольная задвижка, боковая задвижка, штуцер. Закрытие: в обратном порядке.

8. Обеспечение герметичности между двумя кольцевыми фланцами.

9. Клиновая подвеска, первичное уплотнение, вторичное уплотнение, муфтовая подвеска.

10. Набор конусообразных клиньев для крепления и удержания

обсадной колонны. 11. Резиновое кольцо для обеспечения герметичности между

обсадной колонной и внутренней стенкой колонной головки.

12. Уплотнение, устанавливаемое в нижней части ствола промежуточной колонной головки или трубной головки.

13. Удержание колонны НКТ в скважине и изоляция НКТ от затруба.

14. Тип А-1 с внутренней резьбой для НКТ, тип АЕ - полая, с возможностью поднятия или спуска НКТ сквозь нее.


1. Christmas tree provides for valves to connect a well to a pipeline.

2. Correct.

3. Correct.

4. Choke can not show pressure. Tree top adaptor is used for pressure gauge installation.

5. Correct.

6. Every time after installation of primary and secondary seals they must be pressure tested.

7. Correct.



1. To ensure any tool run into a hole will go through.

2. To prolong valves life and for integrity.

3. To stop fluid flow, to control fluid flow by adjusting flow opening.

4. Gate valves, ball valves, plug valves.

5. Needle valves, chokes, globe valves, butterfly valves.

6. To adjust and control fluid flow.

7. Housing, stem, wheel, seat, disc.

8. The valves will be damaged by erosion and will not close all the way down.